Financial Investigation Tips for Second Marriages

June 2, 2015

INTRODUCTION by ROBIN GRAINE, JD, Virginia Supreme Court Certified Mediator

As a divorce mediator, I am keenly aware that many of my clients will enter into second (and sometimes third and fourth) marriages. In fact, the U.S. Census Bureau reports that, within five years of a divorce from a first spouse, a whopping one in five Americans says “I do” a second time.  A two marriage record is OK . . . but a two-time personal divorce statistic is really hard to deal with for most people.

Hopefully, whatever mistakes you made in your first marriage will not be repeated in your second attempt. If some of the problems in your first marriage had to do with money, this article will help you with essential and necessary ways of determining what you are getting into the second time around.

Though it may be uncomfortable to do the investigation necessary to ensure “financial bliss,” successful remarriages need to start with openness, trust, and a mutual value system. If you are concerned about your financial future with your new bride or groom, you may need to open up your tax files as big as you open up your heart . . .  it really should not be a problem.  If it is, there’s your first warning that things might not be as perfect between you as you had thought.

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Graine Mediation’s guest blogger, Julian Block, who is a leading national tax professional and attorney, has this to say about protecting yourself financially before you say “yes” to a second marriage:

Tax Reminders for Couples Contemplating Tying the Knot—Again

As an attorney and author who has written and lectured extensively about the tax aspects of marriage and divorce, I frequently receive questions from couples contemplating marriage.

One of my standard recommendations is that they consider the tax consequences beforehand, especially when one of them or both of them are remarrying. My advice: Before they commit to a walk down the aisle, each should consider whether to ask the other for copies of tax returns. In my experience, it’s particularly important for women to do that.

To illustrate how I would advise them, let’s say it’s going to be a second or third marriage for both John and Marsha—something that’s not uncommon nowadays, judging from the SundayStyles Section of the New York Times.

Something else that’s no longer uncommon is that her holdings considerably exceed his. Possible reasons why she’s wealthier? Much-married and several-times-widowed Marsha inherited assets from her spouses; or a couple of divorces resulted in her receiving several sizable settlements; or she was one of the Facebook staffers who were enormously enriched by its IPO.

Both Marsha and John are old enough for membership in AARP. Their ages matter because the divorce rate is extremely high for people over age 50—particularly for those who remarry.

Mindful of those stats, Marsha had John assent to a prenuptial agreement (just as she did in advance of earlier marriages). What else might Marsha do? I counsel her to ask for copies of John’s federal and state returns. Depending on what they reveal, she might decide that it’s prudent to stay single or, if they do wed, to file separate returns.

Following are summaries of scenarios I created that, albeit unromantic, are based on actual events.

Fear of filing:  It turns out that John hasn’t filed returns, something that’s common across all levels of society. It’s vital that Marsha know his potential liability for back taxes, penalties and interest. Also, he must specify when he will file returns and arrange for installment payments that will square him with federal and state tax agencies.

My advice, should Marsha wed: She files separate returns and doesn’t mix her assets with his assets. Also, she asks John to fill her in on what other shoes might drop.

A less troubling scenario that’s nonetheless problematicWhile John has filed 1040s, he owes considerable amounts in back taxes, and interest charges continue to mount. Marsha’s tactics, assuming they wed: Again, file separately and not comingle assets until he has squared accounts with the IRS. There’s a snag if they file jointly and are due a refund; the IRS can apply the refund to his back taxes.

John has filed returns and owes no back taxes: Marsha should still scrutinize certain deductions and other items on his returns. Let’s focus on some of the easier ones.

 Alimony payments: John’s returns reveal that he makes alimony payments to his ex-wives that he didn’t mention to Marsha;

Dependency exemptions for children not living with John due to divorce or separation: A divorce settlement (or settlements) allows him as a noncustodial parent to claim such exemptions.  He never told Marsha about those children;

Gambling: John’s returns show substantial amounts of gambling winnings for “other income” on line 21 of the 1040 form. Those returns also show offsetting deductions for gambling losses on line 28 of Schedule A. Losses are deductible only up to the amount of winnings. Does he have nondeductible losses that far exceed winnings? Perhaps the amounts wagered indicate that John gambles compulsively;

Schedule C: John files a Schedule C for his dental practice. A cursory review of amounts entered for business receipts and expenses suggests he’s understating gross receipts and overstating expenses. Whereas dentists in his area typically claim expenses equal to about 50 percent of gross receipts, his expenses equal about 75 percent of gross receipts. A plausible explanation for the discrepancy is that John doesn’t deposit currency payments received from patients into the practice’s bank account, and he tells his accountant to use bank deposits to calculate gross receipts. Is John trying to pull one on the IRS?

Schedule A: Line 4 shows he claims hefty itemized deductions for medical expenses (allowable to most persons only for the part above 10 percent of adjusted gross income). Deductions could be easily explained as attributable to payments for insurance premiums and expenses usually not covered by insurance—for instance, dental work, hearing aids, glasses, medically required home improvements or private duty nurses. Or the reason for substantial write-offs might be that, like Tony Soprano, John sees a shrink several times a week. Not to imply that there’s anything wrong with those visits; still—like the restorative powers of chicken soup—it can’t hurt and might help for Marsha to determine how much John has in common with Tony or, worse yet, Norman Bates.

Donations: John’s a chintzy contributor, whereas Marsha is a generous giver. This may not be a deal breaker, but they should discuss charitable donations before marriage.

Withholding: Each year, John receives big refunds, deliberately as a form of forced savings or simply by neglecting to claim enough exemptions on his W-4. But interest-free loans to the IRS are anathema for someone like Marsha, who meticulously monitors her withholding from wages and outlays for estimated payments. Her returns may show small balances due. It’s preferable that they discuss before marriage how they’ll handle withholding.

In the midst of all these thorns, there are some roses. Assume John has a substantial capital loss carry forward and no unrealized capital gains. At $3,000 a year, it will take many years to use up John’s carry forward. She, however, has a substantial unrealized capital gain. Marriage means Marsha can realize the gain and offset it against John’s carry forward.

Similarly, suppose he operates a business that’s unprofitable. He has a hefty net operating loss carry forward; but not enough other income to absorb the carry forward. Marsha has sizable income. Marriage enables him to apply his carry forward against her income.    

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Julian Block writes and practices law in Larchmont, N.Y. and was formerly with the IRS as a special agent (criminal investigator) and an attorney. He is frequently quoted in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post, and has been cited as: “a leading tax professional” (New York Times); “an accomplished writer on taxes” (Wall Street Journal);and “an authority on tax planning” (Financial Planning Magazine). This article is excerpted from “Julian Block’s Tax Tips for Marriage and Divorce,” available as a Kindle at Amazon.com and as a print copy at julianblocktaxexpert.com. Law professor James E. Maule, a professor at Villanova University School of Law and Graduate Tax Program, praised the book as “An easy-to-read and well-organized explanation of the tax rules.”  The National Association of Personal Financial Advisers says it is “A terrific reference.”

This blog and its materials have been prepared by Graine Mediation for informational purposes only and are not intended to be, are not, and should not be regarded as, legal advice.  This information is not intended to create, and receipt of it does not constitute, an attorney-client relationship.  Internet subscribers and online readers should not act upon this information without seeking professional counsel.

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When Should Married Couples Check ‘Married, Filing Separately’?

March 1, 2015

Graine Mediation is pleased to introduce Julian Block, JD as our guest blogger this week.  Mr. Block is a leading authority on tax planning for divorce and the author of Julian Block’s Tax Tips for Divorce, from which this article is an excerpt.

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Married couples need no reminder that they can benefit from joint filing when one mate earns all or considerably more of the income than the other. That tax break, though, can become a trap for spouses who decide to split, but don’t obtain a divorce or a legal separation. They still have the option to file jointly, assum­ing both partners are willing to do so. Nevertheless, one or both might find it more advantageous to file separately. The financial implications are huge.

Among other drawbacks for joint filers: they’re jointly and severally liable. That means married persons remain on the hook even if their marriage breaks up after they file a joint return. So if the IRS audits their return and demands extra taxes, it can dun either mate for the entire amount of any additional taxes, penalties and interest that becomes due.

Nevertheless, there are some drawbacks to filing separately. Whatever a couple’s reasons for avoiding tax togetherness, the two of them may be in for an unpleasant and expensive surprise when filing time rolls around. The taxes they’ll pay as married persons filing separately can be considerably more than the taxes they’d owe as joint filers or even as two unmarried persons.

There are other drawbacks for married persons who choose to file separately. One is that both of them must use Schedule A of Form 1040 to itemize their deductions for charitable donations and the like or that both must use the standard deduction.

Special rules for married persons living apart. Fortunately, there’s a way out of these traps for many married persons. An often overlooked break entitles them to be treated as if they were unmarried for the year in question—provided they fulfill certain requirements. The result: Even though they aren’t divorced or legally separated, they’re excused from having to use the rates for a married individual filing separately and, instead, receive the benefit of the more favorable rates for a head of household.

To take advantage of head of household rates, you have to pass a four-step test.

  •  Step 1: You file a separate return from your spouse.
  •  Step 2: Your spouse didn’t live with you at any time during the last six months of 2014. You and your spouse must live in separate residences, warns the IRS, and the courts agree. The Tax Court has ruled that a hus­band failed to qualify as a head of household when he and his wife agreed to live in separate areas of the same residence. Thus, living apart under one roof doesn’t pass muster.

In another dispute, the court reminded Laurel Hopkins that sharing the same quarters for as little as one day during the last six months of the year can be fatal. Before more than six months had elapsed during the year at issue, Laurel and her husband, William, had ceased to live together; but during the balance of the year, she sometimes let William stay overnight be­cause he was unable to find a dwelling.

As she paid all the household bills and was the sole support of their two children, Laurel, not unrea­sonably, believed herself entitled to file as a head of household. Unfortunately, in the course of a subse­quent IRS audit, Laurel let slip that William sometimes stayed in her apartment. On the basis of that admission, the feds determined that Laurel’s proper filing status was that of a married person filing separately. Though sympathetic to Laurel’s predicament, the Tax Court agreed with the IRS that a wife who shelters a homeless husband at any time during the last six months of the year disqualifies herself for head of household status.

 To avoid getting caught in an audit trap like Laurel, don’t chat yourself into loss of a tax break. Confine your answers to the questions raised.

  •  Step 3: You paid more than half of the cost of keeping up your home for 2014.
  •  Step 4: Your home was, for more than half of 2014, the principal residence of your child, stepchild or adopted child, whom you can claim as a dependent.

You aren’t necessarily disqualified from filing as a head of household just because you’re unable to claim the child. As the parent with custody—the mother, in most cases—you continue to be eligible, if you sign IRS Form 8332, which allows the 2014 exemption to be claimed by your spouse, the parent without custody.

When couples live apart by mutual agreement, they might be able to work out an arrangement whereby each spouse can claim a dependent child and each qualifies as a head of household. Congress enacted this special provision that treats married persons as unmarried individuals primarily for the benefit of abandoned wives (or husbands). But it worded the provision broadly enough to cover couples who have separated and who live apart by mutual agreement—without any actual abandonment.

Julian Block writes and practices law in Larchmont, N.Y. and was formerly with the IRS as a special agent (criminal investigator) and an attorney. He is frequently quoted in the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, and the Washington Post, and has been cited as: “a leading tax professional” (New York Times); “an accomplished writer on taxes” (Wall Street Journal); and “an authority on tax planning” (Financial Planning Magazine). This article is excerpted from “Julian Block’s Tax Tips for Marriage and Divorce,” available as a Kindle at Amazon.com and as a print copy at julianblocktaxexpert.com. Law professor James E. Maule, a professor at Villanova University School of Law and Graduate Tax Program, praised the book as “An easy-to-read and well-organized explanation of the tax rules.” The National Association of Personal Financial Advisers says it is “A terrific reference.”

This blog and its materials have been prepared by Graine Mediation for informational purposes only and are not intended to be, are not, and should not be regarded as, legal advice.  This information is not intended to create, and receipt of it does not constitute, an attorney-client relationship.  Internet subscribers and online readers should not act upon this information without seeking professional counsel.


Just the Facts: Spousal Support in a Virginia Divorce

April 29, 2014

alimony-spousal-support“Alimony” and “Spousal Support” are the same thing. In Virginia, alimony is called “spousal support”. Also, alimony is sometimes referred to as maintenance. To the IRS, though, it’s all the same: “Alimony”.

Spousal Support is not guaranteed in Virginia. In Virginia, Spousal Support is neither presumed to be appropriate in any particular type of divorce case nor is it presumed unnecessary in any particular type of case in divorce case. Spousal Support is awarded on a case-by-case basis (both in the courts and in mediation).

Spousal Support is often awarded to SAHM’s (stay at home mothers), spouses who have a much lower income than the other spouse, spouses who have the potential to be financially independent (but need help getting there), and spouses who remain in an expensive-to-maintain family residence (usually for the sake of the children). Spousal support that is temporary, and designed to financially assist the receiving spouse while she (or he) prepares for employment, is referred to as “Rehabilitative Support”.

Need-Based Calculations versus Formula-Based (Pendente Lite) Calculations. In Virginia, the divorce courts utilize specialized calculations, called pendent lite spousal support calculations. This formula, originally intended to be a temporary calculation used for emergency situations, but now used often by the courts, lawyers and mediators when trying to determine a “fair” amount of spousal support, holds a lot of clout in the courthouse (Fairfax, especially). If your case looks like an alimony case, it is usually recommended that you run the pendente lite calculation to see what the “risk” is to the payer, and what the possible monthly award will be to the recipient.

To determine a more “real life” amount of necessary spousal support, a basic need-based approach is also helpful. Need-based calculations require both spouses to list their expenses (and projected expenses). These expenses are then compared to the net income available to support two households (which also includes the child support to be paid).

Often times, there will be a shortfall in both parties’ ability to pay their expenses. With budgeting adjustments, creativity and planning – alimony often being a chief player in the mix – Graine Mediation is able to help couples settle most cases despite the financial hurdles involved.

What are the tax effects of spousal support? The recipient is taxed on alimony at her (or his) tax rate. In other words, alimony is considered “earned income” by the IRS. The payer of spousal support is allowed to deduct the alimony paid, dollar for dollar, from his (or her) gross income, thereby decreasing the income upon which he (or she) will be taxed. In other words, the payer’s adjusted gross income is decreased by the amount of alimony paid. The party who receives the spouse support, on the other hand, will pay taxes on that money at the same rate as her (or his) earned income is/would be taxed.

What is the effect of spousal support payments on child support? Since alimony (spousal support) increases the gross income of the receiver, and decreases the gross income of the payer, the payment of spousal support decreases the presumed child support amount when calculated using the Virginia Guideline’s formula.

Is Spousal Support modifiable? Spousal support is modifiable – both in terms of the amount and/or duration – depending on how the Mediated Property Settlement Agreement is written (i.e. what the parties agree to). If a couple agrees that the spousal support award is to be modifiable, the terms of that modifiability must be stated very clearly in the Mediated Property Settlement Agreement. Otherwise, the court may base a future decision regarding modification of a spousal support award on the “default” standard: “Whether or not there has been a material change in circumstances not reasonably contemplated by the parties”.

Can there be no spousal support awarded at divorce, but a window left open for an award at a later date? The possibility of a future award of spousal support may be left open in a Mediated Property Settlement Agreement. The term for this is “Reviewability”. Clients may leave a period of review open — whether or not there is an actual dollar amount of spousal support to be paid. The period of time in which the parties may seek an award of spousal support (the review period) may be whatever is agreed upon by the parties. If a period of review is left open, but no time period is specified, the “default” in the law is 50% of the length of the marriage.

Leaving a period of review open is useful if the potential recipient feels insecure about his or her future earning power, but there is no actual need for alimony at the time of settlement.

How long does Spousal Support last? There is no clear law on this, but the rule of thumb in Virginia, when spousal support is deemed appropriate, is 50% the length of the marriage. It depends, of course, on the purpose of the spousal support (e.g. to help get a mother back on her financial-feet, to allow time for a parent to get re-trained/degreed, to offset the costs of living expenses for a specific period of time, to provide full and ongoing support to a former spouse, etc.)

In marriages of greater than 20 years, where the spouse seeking support was not an income earner, or her (or his) income is relatively low compared to the other spouse, permanent alimony (or at least up until the other spouse’s retirement) might be appropriate. This is not the law, but both parties should be aware of this legal trend in Virginia, especially where the spouse seeking the support is on the older side.

Is adultery a bar to spousal support? If the spouse against whom an award of spousal support is sought (the bigger earner) is able to prove the ground of adultery against the spouse seeking the support, there will be no alimony awarded. However, proof is often hard to come by. Also, if the court finds that a denial of spousal support to the adulterer would be “manifestly unjust”, the judge can award it to her (or him) regardless of the marital transgression.

What happens when the party receiving spousal support gets remarried or cohabits: Unless otherwise agreed by the parties, remarriage or cohabitation “in a relationship analogous to a marriage for a period of 1 year or more” (statutory definition) will result in the cessation of all spousal support payments. Of course, the term “relationship analogous to a marriage” is not clearly defined in the law and, in some mediations, clients are urged to discuss and determine what that phrase means to them (in order to avoid future litigation).

What does “Child Contingency” and “Recapture of Alimony” mean? The tax law related to alimony is fairly complex. Two areas, in particular, often come up in a divorce mediation: Child Contingency and Recapture of Alimony.

The Child Contingency rule has to do with the IRS’s sensitivity to taxpayers classifying payments as alimony (to get the tax deduction) when, in reality, those payments are really a form a support for the children (child support). The Child Contingency rule can be triggered when an award of alimony ends at the same time, or near the same time (within 6 months to a year, depending on the specific circumstances), of a child-related event (e.g. child turning 18 years old, graduation from high school). For more detail, see my Fairfax Divorce Blog article at https://fairfaxdivorceblog.com/?s=contingency

In a Recapture of Alimony situation, the IRS is looking for deductible alimony payments made, during the first three years following a divorce, which are actually more in the nature of a property distribution. Once again, the IRS is very sensitive to parties classifying payments as deductible alimony when those payments are more aptly classified as some other sort of non-deductible payment such as part of the equitable distribution and division of property (which includes the transfer of money from one spouse to another and may be in the form of a lump sum or paid out in periodic payments). For more detail, see my Fairfax Divorce Blog article at https://fairfaxdivorceblog.com/?s=recapture

Seek Professional Guidance: The law regarding spousal support in Virginia and the Federal Tax Code is fairly complex. Not only that, but the relationship between spousal support, child support and the equitable distribution of property and debt can be overwhelming and easily misunderstood. If you think that your case may involve a need/request for alimony, seek professional guidance from a lawyer-mediator. We are here to help: Robin Graine, JD – Graine Mediation – 571-220-1998.

Posted by Robin Graine, JD, Virginia Supreme Court Certified Mediator

This blog and its materials have been prepared by Graine Mediation for informational purposes only and are not intended to be, are not, and should not be regarded as, legal advice.  This information is not intended to create, and receipt of it does not constitute, an attorney-client relationship.  Internet subscribers and online readers should not act upon this information without seeking professional counsel.


Head of Household Requirements – 2013

November 26, 2013

taxesThere is no getting around the fact that divorce triggers lots of tax questions.  One of most befuddling of those new tax dilemmas for divorcing couples is the availability of the Head of Household filing status.  To clear up some of the mystery, here is some up-to-date information to help you decide what you should be negotiating for in your divorce settlement:

You can only claim Head of Household if:

You are unmarried or considered unmarried (see below under “Terms”) on the last day of the year,

  • You have paid more than half the cost of keeping a home for the year,** and
  • One or more qualifying persons lived with you in the home for more than half the year.

There are two exceptions to the residency requirement for temporary absences and for dependent parents:

Temporary Absences: During the period of temporary absences due to “illness, education, business, vacation, or military service,” the taxpayer and the qualifying person are still considered to be residing in the same household. To count as a temporary absence, “It must be reasonable to assume the absent person will return to the home after the temporary absence.  You must continue to keep up the home during the absence.” (IRS Publication 501)

  • Dependent Parent(s):  A parent can be a qualifying person even if the parent does not reside at the same home as the taxpayer.  The taxpayer must pay more than half the cost of keeping a home that was the main home for parent(s). (IRS Publication 501)

TERMS:

Unmarried: Taxpayer is legally separated (no such thing in Virginia), a decree of divorce/final order of divorce or a decree of separate maintenance has been issued by the court [IRS Code §7703(a)].

Considered Unmarried: A taxpayer may be “considered unmarried” for the purpose of qualifying for Head of Household tax status if:

  • he or she has a child, stepchild or foster-child residing at his/her home for more than half of the year for which he or she is entitled to a deduction (pursuant to IRS Code §151, 152) (even if deduction is given away with IRS Form 8332) [IRS Code §7703(b)(1)]
  • he or she provides for more than half the cost of maintaining a home for him/herself [IRS Code §7703(b)(2)], and
  • he or she is legally married, but has lived in a separate residence from spouse for the last six months of the year (July-December) [IRS Code §7703(b)(3)]

Deductions: A married person who files as Head of Household may choose either the standard deduction or itemized deductions (regardless of which method is used by the other spouse, if still married, which is the opposite of how the IRS does things when spouses file as “married filing separately” (where the two spouse’s choice of standard of itemized deductions must match).   (IRS Publications 501 & 504)

  COMPARISONS:

 Standard Deductions:

Single or Married Filing Separately: $5,950

Married Filing Jointly (or Qualifying Widow with Child): $11,900

Head of Household: $8,700

Tax Basis Comparisons

$30,000 Gross Income

Single 15%      HH 15%

$40,000 Gross Income

Single 25%      HH 15%

$50,000 Gross Income

Single 25%      HH 25%

$60,000 Gross Income

Single 25%      HH 25%

$70,000 Gross Income

Single 25%      HH 25%

$80,000 Gross Income

Single 25%      HH 25%

$90,000 Gross Income

Single 28%      HH 25%

$100,000 Gross Income

Single 28%      HH 25%

$125,000 Gross Income

Single 28%      HH 25%

$150,000 Gross Income

Single 28%      HH 28%

 

Posted by Elizabeth Downing Revell, Mediation Assistant and Robin Graine, JD, Virginia Supreme Court Certified Mediator

This blog and its materials have been prepared by Graine Mediation for informational purposes only and are not intended to be, are not, and should not be regarded as, legal advice.  This information is not intended to create, and receipt of it does not constitute, an attorney-client relationship.  Internet subscribers and online readers should not act upon this information without seeking professional counsel.


Living Separate and Apart – What does that Mean?

November 14, 2011

With the tough current ecomonic times, many couples who are planning for a divorce are making the choice to remain under the same roof, in the marital residence, during their legally-mandated period of pre-divorce separation.  This is probably not what the Virginia legislature intended when they wrote the law about living “separate and apart” before divorce, but this is where we are at in these shaky financial times and the courts have found themselves having to creatively define what “separate and apart” means.

In Virginia, the law states that, before being granted a no-fault divorce, parties must “live separate and apart, without cohabitation and without interruption, for one year”.  If there are no minor children, and if the parties have a written and signed settlement agreement, their period of living separate and apart is just six months.

The reason for the one-year separation rule is public policy: The state wants married couples with children to be absolutely sure that divorce is what is best for their family.  In order to determine that, the legislature has forced families to go through all of the holidays, birthdays, seasons, etc. before they are even allowed to make that final decision to divorce.  Living under the same roof does not truly meet those public policy mandates, but if that is what you plan on doing (and many peope do, these days), here are some guidelines that may help you in determining how to live separate and apart while under the same roof:

  • One spouse should deliver a formal letter to the other stating the intention to live separate and apart as of a certain date.*
  • To establish separate households, you should not engage in the following activites:
    • Sexual Relations
    • Sharing of Food (keep food separate in pantry and refrigerator)
    • Sharing a Room
    • Shopping and Cooking for each other
    • Cleaning Up or doing each other’s Laundry
    • Giving Gifts to each other
    • Attending (arriving at) Social or Family Functions Together
    • Holding Yourselves Out as a Married Couple
  • Spouses should separate and secure Computer, Phones and Email Accounts*
  • Spouses should consider dividing Bank Accounts (close joint accounts)*
  • Spouses should consider paying off and closing Joint Credit Cards*
  • Spouses need to Agree On Division Of:
  • Household Expenses
  • Household Duties
  • Living Arrangements
  • Childcare
  • Other tips:
  • Let others know you are separated
  • Choose a friend of famly member, who visits frequently, as your independent witness.  In Virginia, you will need someone to testify as to your living separate and apart.
  • Be prepared to explain, in a way that is comfortable for you, the reasons for living separately in the same residence to your family, friends, neighbors and children.

*These are bold pre-divorce financial moves that should not be attempted without the advice of legal counsel.

This article is not intended to take the place for legal advice from an attorney.  This blog is for informaitonal purposes only and is not legal advice.

Source: From Virginia State Bar, Family Law News – Fall 2010 (Vol.30 No.3) with personalized comments and suggestions by the blogger, Robin Graine

 


Big Shot Women Stay Married

November 6, 2011

Big Shot Women Stay Married: Of the 29 females who have or are holding Fortune 500 CEO positions, 26 married, 1 divorced and 1 single. http://ow.ly/7kBrC


Family biz makes divorce complex…

October 16, 2011

Family biz makes divorce complex and very expensive. Huff Post lays it out at http://ow.ly/6YAaG


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